Articole stiintifice  referitoare la utilizarea  antocianinilor in afectiuni ale sistemului endocrin

 

 

pancreatic

 

 

1.

Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2013 Jun;68(2):207-12. doi: 10.1007/s11130-013-0353-1.

Cooked common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) protect against β-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Hernández-Saavedra D1Mendoza-Sánchez MHernández-Montiel HLGuzmán-Maldonado HSLoarca-Piña GF,Salgado LMReynoso-Camacho R.

Author information: 
1Research and Graduate Studies in Food Science, School of Chemistry, UAQ, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, México.

Abstract

Diabetes is a disease characterized by a hyperglycemic stage that leads to a chronic inflammatory state. We evaluated the in vivo effect of a diet supplemented with 25 % cooked black bean cultivar Negro 8025 (N8025) flour in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The effect was assessed before (preventive-treatment) and after (treatment) the onset of diabetes. There is a significant decrease of total phenolic, tannins and anthocyanins content after cooking, and the concentration of most of the single phenols analyzed are only slightly decreased. The treatment group showed a significant reduction of glucose (22.8 %), triglycerides (21.9 %), total cholesterol (29.9 %) and LDL (56.1 %) that correlates with a protection ofpancreatic ß-cells. The diet with N8025 flour before the induction of diabetes did not exert a protective effect (glucose levels are similar to the diabetic control) but they have low levels of total cholesterol (47.5 %) and LDL (56.1 %). The preventive-treatment group did not inhibit the increase of TNF-α and IL-1β, whereas the treatment group did, compared to the diabetic control. Therefore, N8025 bean supplementation can be recommended to control diabetes.

 

.2.

Food Funct. 2013 Nov;4(11):1602-8. doi: 10.1039/c3fo60196j.

Black rice and anthocyanins induce inhibition of cholesterol absorption in vitro.

Yao SL1Xu YZhang YYLu YH.

Author information: 
1State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Box 283#, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China. luyanhua@ecust.edu.cn.

Abstract

Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) is often associated with blood lipid control. This study systematically assessed the inhibition of cholesterol absorption in vitro by black rice and explored cholesterol-lowering compounds present in this rice. Our results indicated that black rice extracts (BRE), which were aqueous, ethanol extracts and a fraction of macroporous resin caused the reduction of cholesterol absorption by inhibiting pancreatic lipase, decreasing the micellar cholesterol solubility and suppressing cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-G) and peonidin-3-glucoside (Pn-3-G)) contents of the extracts. Therefore, the cholesterol absorption inhibiting properties of anthocyanins were further explored. The IC50 values of Cy-3-G and Pn-3-G against pancreatic lipase were 42.53 ± 4.45 and 18.13 ± 4.22 μg mL(-1), respectively. Kinetic analysis suggested that the enzymatic inhibitory mode of Cy-3-G and Pn-3-G belonged to the competitive type. In mixed micelles, Cy-3-G and Pn-3-G dose dependently reduced the solubility of cholesterol. Meanwhile, a potential mechanism of cholesterol reduction by anthocyanins was investigated. Results showed that anthocyanins led to precipitation of cholesterol from micellar solution, which may induce the reduction of cholesterol. In Caco-2 cells, Cy-3-G and Pn-3-G (40 μg mL(-1)) exhibited a significant reduction in cholesterol uptake, and the degree of this reduction was almost the same as that observed in the group treated with Ezetimibe at the same concentration. These findings provide important evidence that anthocyanins may partly contribute to the inhibitory effects of black rice on cholesterol absorption, and thus may be applied for the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolaemia.

 

3.

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Sep;63(6):749-65. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2011.649250. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Bioactive compounds with effects on inflammation markers in humans.

Rosa FT1Zulet MÁMarchini JSMartínez JA.

Author information: 
1Division of Clinical Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Calle Irunlarrea 1, São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Obesity and other chronic diseases are accompanied by adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, muscle and brain low-grade chronic inflammation. Indeed, the obese condition and metabolic syndrome are characterized by an increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of immune cells in adipocytes. The inflammatory response promotes the activation of transcriptional factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to an unresolved inflammatory response associated with an inhibition of insulin signalling and high risk for cardiovascular events. Epidemiological and intervention studies have been carried out to find out dietary patterns, foods and bioactive compounds with protective anti-inflammatory actions. The most studied compounds are polyphenols, especially isoflavone and anthocyanin, but quercertin, catechin and resveratrol have also been investigated. Furthermore, some studies have reported the effects of milk peptides, plant sterol and stanol, l-carnitine and α-lipoic acid on inflammatory processes. This review aimed to collect and discuss those relevant studies reported in the scientific literature following a systematic scientific search about the effect of such bioactive compounds on inflammation in humans.

 

4.

J Food Sci. 2012 Sep;77(9):C927-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02848.x. Epub 2012 Aug 13.

Phenolic antioxidants in some Vigna species of legumes and their distinct inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities.

Sreerama YN1Takahashi YYamaki K.

Author information: 
1Nutritional Function Laboratory, Food Function Div, Natl. Food Research Inst, Natl Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan.

Abstract

Phenolic extracts of 4 Vigna species of legumes (mung bean, moth bean, and black and red varieties of adzuki beans) were evaluated for phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory properties against α-glucosidase andpancreatic lipase. Results showed that adzuki bean varieties contain higher phenolic indexes than mung bean and moth beans. Adzuki bean (black) variety was found to be the most active 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion scavenger. However, the hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating abilities were significantly higher in adzuki bean (red) variety. Mung bean exhibited least antioxidant activities in all the methods tested. Phenolic extracts from these legumes also showed distinct variations in the inhibition of enzymes associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Inhibitory activities of all the extracts against lipase were found to be more potent than α-glucosidase. Although, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was superior in the black variety of adzuki bean (IC(50,) 26.28 mg/mL), both adzuki bean varieties (black and red) along with moth bean showed strong inhibitory activities on lipase with no significant difference in their IC(50) values (7.32 to 9.85 mg/mL). These results suggest that Vigna species of legumes are potential source of antioxidant phenolics and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for α-glucosidase and lipase activities. This information may help for effective utilization of these legumes as functional food ingredients for promoting health. Practical Application: Vigna species of legumes are good sources of phenolic antioxidants and strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes and obesity. Therefore, utilization of these legumes in the development of functional foods with increased therapeutic value would be a significant step toward health promotion and wellness.

© 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

 

5.

J Med Food. 2012 Mar;15(3):288-98. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2011.1806. Epub 2011 Dec 19.

Cyanidin-3-glucoside-rich extract from Chinese bayberry fruit protects pancreatic β cells and ameliorates hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

Sun CD1Zhang BZhang JKXu CJWu YLLi XChen KS.

Author information: 
1Laboratory of Fruit Quality Biology/The State Agriculture Ministry Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou, China.

Abstract

Chinese bayberry fruit is a rich source of anthocyanins, especially cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G). The present study investigated the protective effects of C3G-rich bayberry fruit extract (CRBFE) against pancreatic β cells against oxidative stress-induced injury as well as its hypoglycemic effect in diabetic mice. Bayberry extract from "Biqi" was used for both in vitro and in vivo testing because of its high C3G content and high antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of β cells with CRBFE (containing 0.5 μmol/L C3G) prevented cell death, increased cellular viability, and decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and cell necrosis induced by 800 or 1,200 μmol/L HO. CRBFE dose-dependently up-regulated pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 gene expression, contributing to increased insulin-like growth factor II gene transcript levels and insulin protein in INS-1 cells. In addition, administration of CRBFE (150 μg of C3G/10 g of body weight twice per day) significantly reduced blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ICR mice and increased the glucose tolerance in an oral glucose tolerance test (P<.05). Such results indicated that CRBFE might be useful in prevention and control of diabetes mellitus and diabetes-associated complications.

 

6.

J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Sep 14;59(17):9506-11. doi: 10.1021/jf201452v. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Inhibitory effects of muscadine anthocyanins on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities.

You Q1Chen FWang XLuo PGJiang Y.

Author information: 
1Department of Food, Nutrition and Packaging Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, United States.

Abstract

Inhibitory effects of the Noble muscadine grape extracts and the representative phytochemicals for anthocyanins (i.e., cyanidin and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside) on two enzymes, that is, α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase, were investigated regarding their antidiabetic activities. The study demonstrated that the anthocyanin extracts and the selected chemicals obeyed the competitive mode against the enzymes. The methanolic extracts of whole fruit and skin of the muscadine showed inhibitory activities against the α-glucosidase with their IC(50) values at 1.50 and 2.73 mg/mL, and those against the lipase at 16.90 and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively, which indicated that the muscadine extracts possessed strong antidiabetic activities. Particularly, the ethyl acetate (EtoAc) extract and the butanol (BuOH) extract exhibited much higher inhibitory activities against both enzymes than the CHCl(3) and water extracts, while the majority of anthocyanins existed in the BuOH fractions. Moreover, cyanidin exhibited a much stronger antidiabetic activity than cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, suggesting that anthocyanins may have higher inhibitory activities after being digested. Further chromatographic analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified five individual anthocyanins, including cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin glycosides.

 

7.

Molecules. 2011 Mar 2;16(3):2075-83. doi: 10.3390/molecules16032075.

In vitro inhibitory effects of cyandin-3-rutinoside on pancreatic α-amylase and its combined effect with acarbose.

Akkarachiyasit S1Yibchok-Anun SWacharasindhu SAdisakwattana S.

Author information: 
1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Abstract

The inhibitory activity on pancreatic α-amylase by cyanidin-3-rutinoside was examined in vitro. The IC₅₀ value of cyanidin-3-rutinoside against pancreatic α-amylase was 24.4 ± 0.1 μM. The kinetic analysis revealed that pancreatic α-amylase was inhibited by cyanidin-3-rutinoside in a non-competitive manner. The additive inhibition of a combination of cyanidin-3-rutinoside with acarbose against pancreatic α-amylase was also found. These results provide the first evidence for the effect of cyanidin-3-rutinoside in a retarded absorption of carbohydrates by inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase which may be useful as a potential inhibitor for prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

 

8.

J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jan 26;59(2):537-45. doi: 10.1021/jf1035405. Epub 2010 Dec 17.

Anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extract protect β cells from oxidative stress-mediated injury via HO-1 upregulation.

Zhang B1Kang MXie QXu BSun CChen KWu Y.

Author information: 
1Department of Surgery, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, China National Ministry of Education, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Number 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310009, People's Republic of China.

Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role during the islet transplantation procedure, and antioxidant supplementation may protect grafts against oxidative injury. Chinese bayberry is one of six Myrica species native to China, and we demonstrated here that anthocyanins from Chinese bayberry extract (CBE) protect pancreatic β cells (INS-1) against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced necrosis and apoptosis. Anthocyanins time- and dose-dependently upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression in β cells and primary islets. HO-1 knockdown increased H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and attenuated the cytoprotective effect of anthocyanins. Anthocyanin treatment activated ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling, and ERK1/2 and PI3K inhibitors partially attenuated anthocyanin-mediated induction of HO-1. Additionally, β cells pretreated with anthocyanins displayed a decreased extent of apoptosis after transplantation. In summary, these results suggest that anthocyanins in CBE protect β cells from H(2)O(2)-induced cell injury via ERK1/2- and PI3K/Akt-mediated HO-1 upregulation.

 

 

9.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2010 Oct;37(10):980-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2010.05424.x.

Effect of cinnamtannin B-1 on cholecystokinin-8-evoked responses in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

Rivera-Barreno R1del Castillo-Vaquero ASalido GMGonzalez A.

Author information: 
1Department of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Autonomous University of Juarez, Ciudad Juarez, México.

Abstract

1. Cinnamtannin B-1 is a naturally occurring A-type proanthocyanidin that belongs to a class of polyphenols widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom and exhibiting anti-oxidant properties. 2. In the present study, we examined the effects of cinnamtannin B-1 on cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8)-evoked Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and amylase secretion in the exocrine pancreas. 3. Stimulation of cells with 1 nmol/L CCK-8 led to a transient increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ](c) ), followed by a decrease towards a value close to the prestimulation level. In the presence of 10 μmol/L cinnamtannin B-1, stimulation of cells with CCK-8 resulted in a smaller [Ca(2+) ](c) peak response, a faster rate of decay of [Ca(2+) ](c) and lower values for the steady state of [Ca(2+) ](c) , compared with the effect of CCK-8 alone. Cinnamtannin B-1 decreased Ca(2+) influx after depletion of intracellular stores by either CCK-8 or thapsigargin (1 μmol/L). Conversely, CCK-8 increased the fluorescence of 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H(2) DCFDA), reflecting an increase in oxidation. Cinnamtannin B-1 reduced CCK-8-induced oxidation of CM-H(2) DCFDA. Cholecystokinin-8 had a biphasic effect on amylase secretion, producing maximum at a concentration of 0.1 nmol/L and reducing secretion at higher concentrations. Pre-incubation of cells with 10 μmol/L cinnamtannin B-1 significantly attenuated the inhibition of enzyme secretion in response to high concentrations of CCK-8 (i.e. >10(-10) mol/L). Finally, the anti-oxidant protected acinar cells against CCK-8-induced cell death. 4. The beneficial effects of cinnamtannin B-1 appear to be mediated by a reduction in intracellular Ca(2+) overload, ROS production and intracellular accumulation of digestive enzymes, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis.

 

10.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Nov;53(11):1419-29. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200800526.

The anti-diabetic effect of anthocyanins in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through glucose transporter 4 regulation and prevention of insulin resistance and pancreatic apoptosis.

Nizamutdinova IT1Jin YCChung JIShin SCLee SJSeo HGLee JHChang KCKim HJ.

Author information: 
1Department of Pharmacology, Gyeongsang Nat'l University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

Hyperglycemia, abnormal lipid and antioxidant profiles are the most usual complications in diabetes mellitus. Thus, in this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative effects of anthocyanins (ANT) from black soybean seed coats in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The administration of ANT markedly decreased glucose levels and improved heart hemodynamic function (left ventricular end diastolic pressure, +/-dp/dt parameters). ANT not only enhanced STZ-mediated insulin level decreases, but also decreased the triglyceride levels induced by STZ injection in serum. Diabetic rats exhibited a lower expression of glucose transporter 4 proteins in the membrane fractions of heart and skeletal muscle tissues, which was enhanced by ANT. In addition, ANT activated insulin receptor phosphorylation, suggesting an increased utilization of glucose by tissues. Moreover, ANT protected pancreatic tissue from STZ-induced apoptosis through regulation of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 proteins. Furthermore, ANT significantly suppressed malondialdehyde levels and restored superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in diabetic rats. Interestingly, the observed effects of ANT were superior to those of glibenclamide. Taken together, ANT from black soybean seed coat have anti-diabetic effects that are due, in part, to the regulation of glucose transporter 4 and prevention of insulin resistance andpancreatic apoptosis, suggesting a possible use as a drug to regulate diabetes.

 

 

12.

J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jan 12;53(1):28-31.

Insulin secretion by bioactive anthocyanins and anthocyanidins present in fruits.

Jayaprakasam B1Vareed SKOlson LKNair MG.

Author information: 
1Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

Abstract

Anthocyanins are responsible for a variety of bright colors including red, blue, and purple in fruits, vegetables, and flowers and are consumed as dietary polyphenols. Anthocyanin-containing fruits are implicated in a decrease in coronary heart disease and are used in antidiabetic preparations. In the present study, we have determined the ability of anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-glucoside (1), delphinidin-3-glucoside (2), cyanidin-3-galactoside (3), and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (4), and anthocyanidins, cyanidin (5), delphinidin (6), pelargonidin (7), malvidin (8), and petunidin (9), to stimulate insulin secretion from rodent pancreatic beta-cells (INS-1 832/13) in vitro. The compounds were tested in the presence of 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations. Our results indicated that 1 and 2 were the most effective insulin secretagogues among the anthocyanins and anthocyanidins tested at 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations. Pelargonidin-3-galactoside is one of the major anthocyanins, and its aglycone, pelargonidin, caused a 1.4-fold increase in insulin secretion at 4 mM glucose concentration. The rest of the anthocyanins and anthocyanidins tested in our assay had only marginal effects on insulin at 4 and 10 mM glucose concentrations.

 

13.

Cancer Lett. 2002 Nov 28;185(2):123-30.

Effects of cacao liquor proanthocyanidins on PhIP-induced mutagenesis in vitro, and in vivo mammary and pancreatic tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

Yamagishi M1Natsume MOsakabe NNakamura HFurukawa FImazawa TNishikawa AHirose M.

Author information: 
1Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, 158-8501, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

The effects of cacao liquor proanthocyanidins (CLPr) on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced mutagenesis in vitro and on in vivo carcinogenesis in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were investigated. In the Ames assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, CLPr showed strong antimutagenic effects against PhIP when assayed in the presence of S-9 mixture. For determination of the influence on initiation and subsequent development of lesions, CLPr (0.025% or 0.25%) were fed during the period of PhIP application (100 mg/kg given to rats via gastric tubes eight times over 4 weeks), or thereafter until the termination at 48 weeks. CLPr treatments did not affect body or organ weights. The incidences, multiplicities and volumes of mammary tumors in the 0.25% CLPr (post-initiation) group showed a tendency to decrease as compared to PhIP alone group values, although without statistical significance. The incidences of preneoplastic eosinophilic foci in the exocrine pancreas were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in a dose-dependent manner when CLPr were given during the initiation period. These results indicate that CLPr inhibit in vitro mutagenicity of PhIP, as well as rat pancreatic carcinogenesis in the initiation stage, but not mammary carcinogenesis induced by PhIP.

 

14.

Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2000 Jun;8(48):395-8.

[The influence of Aronia melanocapra in experimental pancreatitis].

[Article in Polish]

Jankowski A1Jankowska BNiedworok J.

Author information: 
1Zakładu Organizacji Ochrony Zdrowia Wojsk WAM w Lodzi.

Abstract

The administration of anthocyanin dyes from Aronia melanocarpa in the rats before the intraperitoneal injections of PAF and ceruleine have a beneficial effect on the development of the acute experimental pancreatitis. It was revealed the reduction of pancreas swelling and decreasing of lipid peroxidation and adenosine deaminase activity. The examination was carried out on 149, weighing 200-250 g, female and male Wistar rats. They lived in the animal quarters with a stable temperature and humidity being fed with standard fodder (Murigan) and water ad libitum.

 

 

thymus

 

1.

Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(9):11773-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms130911773. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Protective Effect of Anthocyanin from Lonicera Caerulea var. Edulis on Radiation-Induced Damage in Mice.

Zhao H1Wang ZMa FYang XCheng CYao L.

Author information: 
1School of Food Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; E-Mails:zhaoht9999@163.com (H.Z.); mfm88492800@163.com (F.M.); yangxin940@163.com (X.Y.);luluyao2012@gmail.com (C.C.); yaoleiyl2000@163.com (L.Y.).

Abstract

The radioprotective effect of anthocyanin extracted from Lonicera caerulea var. edulis (ALC), was studied in ICR mice. Different doses of ALC were intragastrically administered to mice once a day, prior to radiation. After two weeks, the mice received a one-time 5 Gy whole body (60)Coγ radiation. The spleen index, thymus index, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and glutathione (GSH) content in liver tissue were measured. Compared with the radiation control group, the levels of MDA in all ALC treated groups decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Moreover, the GSH content, activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver tissue were enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) in all ALC groups. These results demonstrate that ALC may be a potential radioprotector, and a further study of the molecular mechanism is needed for further application.

 

2.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 Dec 18;9(12):4732-43. doi: 10.3390/ijerph9124732.

Protective effect of anthocyanins from lingonberry on radiation-induced damages.

Fan ZL1Wang ZYZuo LLTian SQ.

Author information: 
1School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, XiangFang District, Harbin, China. fzl_1122@163.com

Abstract

There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation.

 

3.

J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jul 13;59(13):7405-9. doi: 10.1021/jf200851h. Epub 2011 Jun 16.

Calf thymus DNA-binding ability study of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes ( Ipomoea batatas L.).

Wang D1Wang XZhang CMa YZhao X.

Author information: 
1Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing 100097, People's Republic of China.

Abstract

A total of 10 anthocyanin compounds were identified from five purple sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties, Qunzi, Zishu038, Ji18, Jingshu6, and Ziluolan, by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to assess their calf thymus DNA-binding ability in vitro. The interaction between anthocyanins and calf thymus DNA in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 6.9) was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe, fluorescence quenching of the emission peak was seen in the DNA-EB system when anthocyanins were added, indicating that the anthocyanins bound with DNA. The acylated groups influenced the ability of the interaction with DNA. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato with more acylated groups in sorphorose have a stronger binding ability with DNA.

 

4.

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 9;57(17):7681-6. doi: 10.1021/jf901341b.

Distribution and excretion of bilberry anthocyanins [corrected] in mice.

Sakakibara H1Ogawa TKoyanagi AKobayashi SGoda TKumazawa SKobayashi HShimoi K.

Author information: 
1Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

Erratum in

·  J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 28;57(20):9856.

Abstract

The physiology and tissue distribution of bilberry anthocyanins were studied in mice. After oral administration of bilberry extract (100 mg/kg body weight), both unmodified and methylated anthocyanins appeared in the plasma. The plasma concentration of total anthocyanins reached a maximum of 1.18 +/- 0.3 microM after 15 min and then sharply decreased. Their urinary excretion was highest between 0 and 6 h after administration and had ceased by 24 h. The total quantities of bilberry anthocyanins excreted into urine represented 1.88% (range, 0.62% to 2.45%) of consumed anthocyanins. Thirteen anthocyanins were identified in bilberry extracts. Of these, malvidin-3-glucoside and -3-galactoside were the principal anthocyanins in the plasma 60 min after administration. When mice were maintained for 2 weeks on a diet containing 0.5% of bilberry extracts, the plasma concentration of anthocyanins reached a maximum of 0.26 muM. Anthocyanins were detected only in the liver, kidney, testes, and lung, with maximum tissue concentrations of 605, 207, 149, and 116 pmol/g, respectively. In these organs, malvidin-3-glucoside and -3-galactoside were the predominant anthocyanins. Anthocyanins were not detectable in the spleen, thymus, heart, muscle, brain, white fat, or eyes. We conclude that bilberry anthocyanins were absorbed into the body and distributed in specific organs, particularly the liver, kidney, and testis. The most common anthocyanins in tissues were malvidin glycosides.

 

6.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Feb;44(2):236-41. Epub 2005 Aug 24.

Formation and inhibition of genotoxic malonaldehyde from DNA oxidation controlled with EDTA.

Matsufuji H1Ochi HShibamoto T.

Author information: 
1Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Abstract

The attack of DNA by reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radical, causes several types of damage, which subsequently promote diseases. Determination of oxidized products, such as malonaldehyde (MA), from DNA would provide theoretical and practical information on the mechanisms of DNA oxidation following DNA damage and this information could be used to prevent DNA damage caused by oxidation. In the present study, calf thymusDNA was oxidized by Fenton's reagent/EDTA with or without natural antioxidants-flavonoids and anthocyanins-and synthetic antioxidants, Trolox and 2H-pyrrole, 3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-, 1-oxide (DMPO). Amounts of MA formed, which was determined by gas chromatography, in oxidized DNA with the presence of antioxidants, ranged from 7.35+/-0.88 nmol/mg (2''-O-GIV) to 12.6+/-0.24 nmol/g (cyanidin). Except for cyanidin, all antioxidants tested inhibited MA formation. DMPO and Trolox inhibited MA formation by 12.4% and 27.3%, respectively from oxidized DNA. The decreasing order of inhibitory effect by the anthocyanins was callistephin (30.2%)>keracyanin (27.3%)>Pelargonindin (10.1%)>cyanidin (0%). The decreasing order of inhibitory effect by the flavonoids was 2''-O-GIV (42.7%)>catechin (8.8%)>quercetin (36.4%)>apigenin (34.4%). It is hypothesized that EDTA controlled formation of hydroxyl radicals via trapping Fe(II) ions reversibly.

 

7.

Chem Res Toxicol. 2005 Sep;18(9):1395-404.

Anthocyanidins modulate the activity of human DNA topoisomerases I and II and affect cellular DNA integrity.

Habermeyer M1Fritz JBarthelmes HUChristensen MOLarsen MKBoege FMarko D.

Author information: 
1Department of Chemistry, Division of Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Strasse 52, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Abstract

In the present study, we investigated the effect of anthocyanidins on human topoisomerases I and II and its relevance for DNA integrity within human cells. Anthocyanidins bearing vicinal hydroxy groups at the B-ring (delphinidin, DEL; cyanidin, CY) were found to potently inhibit the catalytic activity of human topoisomerases I and II, without discriminating between the IIalpha and the IIbeta isoforms. However, in contrast to topoisomerase poisons, DEL and CY did not stabilize the covalent DNA-topoisomerase intermediates (cleavable complex) of topoisomerase I or II. Using recombinant topoisomerase I, the presence of CY or DEL (> or = 1 microM) effectively prohibited the stabilization of the cleavable complex by the topoisomerase I poison camptothecin. We furthermore investigated whether the potential protective effect vs topoisomerase I poisons is reflected also on the cellular level, affecting the DNA damaging properties of camptothecin. Indeed, in HT29 cells, low micromolar concentrations of DEL (1-10 microM) significantly diminished the DNA strand breaking effect of camptothecin (100 microM). However, at concentrations > or = 50 microM, all anthocyanidins tested (delphinidin, cyanidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, and paeonidin), including those not interfering with topoisomerases, were found to induce DNA strand breaks in the comet assay. All of these analogues were able to compete with ethidium bromide for the intercalation into calf thymus DNA and to replace the minor groove binder Hoechst 33258. These data indicate substantial affinity to double-stranded DNA, which might contribute at least to the DNA strand breaking effect of anthocyanidins at higher concentrations (> or = 50 microM).

 

 

8.

J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2005 Jun;22(6):719-24.

DNA interaction with naturally occurring antioxidant flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, and delphinidin.

Kanakis CD1Tarantilis PAPolissiou MGDiamantoglou STajmir-Riahi HA.

Author information: 
1Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 118 55 Athens, Greece.

Abstract

Flavonoids are strong antioxidants that prevent DNA damage. The anticancer and antiviral activities of these natural products are implicated in their mechanism of actions. However, there has been no information on the interactions of these antioxidants with individual DNA at molecular level. This study was designed to examine the interaction of quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae), and delphinidin (del) with calf-thymus DNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant DNA concentration (6.5 mmol) and various drug/DNA(phosphate) ratios of 1/65 to 1. FTIR and UV-Visible difference spectroscopic methods are used to determine the drug binding sites, the binding constants and the effects of drug complexation on the stability and conformation of DNA duplex. Structural analysis showed quercetin, kaempferol, and delphinidin bind weakly to adenine, guanine (major groove), and thymine (minor groove) bases, as well as to the backbone phosphate group with overall binding constants K(que) = 7.25 x 10(4)M(-1), K(kae) = 3.60 x 10(4)M(-1), and K(del) = 1.66 x 10(4)M(-1). The stability of adduct formation is in the order of que>kae>del. Delphinidin with a positive charge induces more stabilizing effect on DNA duplex than quercetin and kaempferol. A partial B to A-DNA transition occurs at high drug concentrations.

 

9.

J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Sep 8;52(18):5759-63.

Inhibition of malonaldehyde formation in oxidized calf thymus DNA with synthetic and natural antioxidants.

Matsufuji H1Shibamoto T.

Author information: 
1Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616, USA.

Abstract

Calf thymus DNA was oxidized by Fenton's reagent with or without synthetic antioxidants (Trolox and DMPO) and natural antioxidants-quercetin, apigenin, 2''-O-glycosylisovitexin (2''-O-GIV), (+)-catechin, cyanidin, pelargonidin, keracyanin, and callistephin. Malonaldehyde (MA) formed in oxidized DNA was analyzed using gas chromatography. MA formed from oxidized DNA without antioxidants was 4.0 +/- 0.53 nmol/mg of DNA in buffer solution, 3.7 +/- 0.34 nmol/mg of DNA in NaOH solution, and 4.6 +/- 0.19 nmol/mg of DNA in HCl solution. MA formed from DNA with antioxidants (at the level of 0.1 micromol/mL) ranged from 1.90 +/- 0.18 (catechin) to 4.10 +/- 0.18 nmol/mg of DNA (cyanidin). Trolox and DMPO inhibited MA formation from DNA by 41.2% and 18.6%, respectively, at the level of 0.1 micromol/mL. Trolox (water-soluble vitamin E) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition. The decreasing order of inhibitory effect by flavonoids at the level of 0.1 micromol/mL was catechin (48.5%) > quercetin (47.1%) > 2''-O-GIV (40.5%) > apigenin (29.9%) and by the anthocyanins at the level of 0.1 micromol/mL was callistephin (45%) > keracyanin (33.2%) > pelargonidin (25.1%)

 

 

thyroid

 

 

1.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jan 31;14:41. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-41.

Radioprotective effect of the Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) against radiopharmaceutical iodine-131 in Wistar rats in vivo.

Düsman E1Berti APMariucci RGLopes NBTonin LTVicentini VE.

Author information: 
1Department of Biotechnology, Genetics and Cell Biology, State University of Maringá, Avenida Colombo 5790, Bloco H67 (11), Jardim Universitário, CEP: 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. lisdusman@yahoo.com.br.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables has contributed to the improvement of populational health, due in part, to the abundance of antioxidants in these foods. Antioxidants reduce the level of oxidative damage to DNA caused by free radicals and ionizing radiation, including the radioisotope iodine-131 (131I). This isotope is used for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid injuries, such as hyperthyroidism and cancer.

METHODS:

This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective and cytotoxic activity of acute and subchronic treatments with Barbados Cherry (BC) (Malpighia glabra L.) fruit juice (5 mg), which is rich in potent antioxidants such as vitamin C, phenols, carotenoids, anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids and its activity against the mutagenic activity of the therapeutic dose of 25 μCi of radioiodine for hyperthyroidism. The test system used was the bone marrow cells of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were treated in vivo by gavage.

RESULTS:

BC showed radioprotective activity in acute treatments, which is most likely due to the joint action of its antioxidant components. In subchronic treatments, the continuous treatment presented an effective radioprotective activity, which was significantly different from treatment with the radiopharmaceutical only. Treatment with BC prior to (PRE) and simultaneous with (SIM) ionizing radiation decreased the number of induced chromosomal alterations, while post-treatment produced no protective effect. In addition, BC exhibited no cytotoxic activity.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data serve as evidence that BC can be used as a preventive health measure to improve public health quality by countering the action of inevitable exposure to mutagens, such as 131I.

 

2.

Cancer Lett. 2003 Feb 28;191(1):49-57.

Chemoprevention of lung carcinogenesis by cacao liquor proanthocyanidins in a male rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model.

Yamagishi M1Natsume MOsakabe NOkazaki KFurukawa FImazawa TNishikawa AHirose M.

Author information: 
1Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan.

Abstract

The effects of cacao liquor proanthocyanidins (CLPr) on tumorigenesis were investigated using a multi-organ carcinogenesis model in male F344 rats receiving combined treatment with a single i.p. injection of diethylnitrosamine (100 mg/kg body wt), four i.p. injections of N-methylnitrosourea (20 mg/kg body wt), four s.c. injections of dimethylhydrazine (40 mg/kg body wt), along with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine and then 0.1% 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine, both in the drinking water, for 2 weeks each, during the initial 4-week period (DMBDD treatment). Starting 1 week thereafter, rats were administered CLPr at a dose of 0.025% or 0.25% and the experiment was terminated at week 36. The final survival rate for the DMBDD+0.25% CLPr group was significantly greater than for the DMBDD alone group. In the lung, significant reduction in the incidence and multiplicity of carcinomas was also observed, and in the thyroid, quantitative values for adenomas also tended to decrease in a CLPr dose-dependent manner. No significant modification in the small intestine, colon or kidney was evident. These results indicate that CLPr exerts chemopreventive effects in the lung without any promoting influence in other major organs.

 

 

 

spleen

 

.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Oct;57(10):1753-61. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201300022. Epub 2013 Jun 3.

Anthocyanin-rich juice does not affect gut-associated immunity in Fischer rats.

Graf D1Seifert SBub AFröhling BDold SUnger FRömpp AWatzl B.

Author information: 
1Department of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Karlsruhe, Germany.

Abstract

SCOPE:

Most studies on immunomodulatory effects of anthocyanins are concentrated on their anti-inflammatory potential. In vitro studies suggest that anthocyanins possess anti-inflammatory potential, but results from in vivo studies are rare and inconclusive. Sparse information is available about the immune tissues that are affected by anthocyanins. As systemic bioavailability of anthocyanins is rather low, predominantly luminal anthocyanins could influence the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Therefore, the present study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of an anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice (ARJ) on the systemic immune system, GALT, and mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT).

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Fischer rats (n = 24/group) received ARJ or anthocyanin-depleted grape-bilberry juice (control) for 10 wk. Lymphocytes were isolated from blood, spleen, Peyer's Patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Anthocyanin intake was 15 mg/day and concentrations were determined in plasma and intestinal tract. Number of T and natural killer cells, natural killer cell activity, cytokine secretion from lymphocytes (IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) and MAT (IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1), inflammation markers in serum (sICAM, IFN-γ, and MCP-1), and activation status of NF-κB were not influenced by ARJ.

CONCLUSION:

This in vivo study suggests that anthocyanins at physiological doses affect neither the systemic immune system, nor GALT, or MAT in healthy, unchallenged rats.

© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

PMID: 23729013 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related citations

Description: Icon for John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 

 

2.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2012 Dec 18;9(12):4732-43. doi: 10.3390/ijerph9124732.

Protective effect of anthocyanins from lingonberry on radiation-induced damages.

Fan ZL1Wang ZYZuo LLTian SQ.

Author information: 
1School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, XiangFang District, Harbin, China. fzl_1122@163.com

Abstract

There is a growing concern about the serious harm of radioactive materials, which are widely used in energy production, scientific research, medicine, industry and other areas. In recent years, owing to the great side effects of anti-radiation drugs, research on the radiation protectants has gradually expanded from the previous chemicals to the use of natural anti-radiation drugs and functional foods. Some reports have confirmed that anthocyanins are good antioxidants, which can effectively eliminate free radicals, but studies on the immunoregulatory and anti-radiation effects of anthocyanins from lingonberry (ALB) are less reported. In this experiment, mice were given orally once daily for 14 consecutive days before exposure to 6 Gy of gamma-radiation and were sacrificed on the 7th day post-irradiation. The results showed that the selected dose of extract did not lead to acute toxicity in mice; while groups given anthocyanins orally were significantly better than radiation control group according to blood analysis; pretreatment of anthocyanins significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the thymus and spleen indices and spleen cell survival compared to the irradiation control group. Pretreatment with anthocyanins before irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). These findings indicate that anthocyanins have immunostimulatory potential against immunosuppression induced by the radiation.

 

3.

Biofactors. 2012 May-Jun;38(3):226-33. doi: 10.1002/biof.1008. Epub 2012 Mar 16.

Effects of anthocyanin-rich tea "Sunrouge" on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice.

Akiyama S1Nesumi AMaeda-Yamamoto MUehara MMurakami A.

Author information: 
1Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Japan.

Abstract

Sunrouge, an anthocyanin-rich tea, has similar levels of catechins as "Yabukita," the most popular green tea cultivar consumed in Japan. Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) have attracted interest due to their potent antioxidative activities combined with a lack of side effects in humans at normal consumption levels. However, we previously reported that high doses (0.5 and 1%) of dietary GTPs can result in deterioration of colitis and failed to prevent colon carcinogenesis in inflamed colons. In the present study, we determined the inhibitory effects of Sunrouge on colitis in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated and untreated control mice. Five-week-old female ICR mice were administered a single dose of Yabukita or Sunrouge (extracts in 1 mL distilled water) via a stomach tube for 3 weeks. After 1 week of treatment, the mice were divided into four groups (two Yabukita and two Sunrouge groups) and given drinking water with or without 3% DSS for 2 weeks, then they were euthanized. Those treated with DSS developed watery diarrhea and bloody stools, and showed body weight loss, spleen hypertrophy, and shortening of the colon, as well as deteriorations in survival rate, liver function, colon mucosal interleukin-1β level and expression of phase II detoxification enzyme mRNA. Sunrouge improved these DSS-induced symptoms, at least in part, whereas Yabukita showed either no effect or adverse effects in regard to some those parameters. It is suggested that the differences between Yabukita and Sunrouge on DSS-induced colitis might be due to the high levels of anthocyanins found in Sunrouge tea.

 

4.

Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(9):11773-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms130911773. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Protective Effect of Anthocyanin from Lonicera Caerulea var. Edulis on Radiation-Induced Damage in Mice.

Zhao H1Wang ZMa FYang XCheng CYao L.

Author information: 
1School of Food Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; E-Mails:zhaoht9999@163.com (H.Z.); mfm88492800@163.com (F.M.); yangxin940@163.com (X.Y.);luluyao2012@gmail.com (C.C.); yaoleiyl2000@163.com (L.Y.).

Abstract

The radioprotective effect of anthocyanin extracted from Lonicera caerulea var. edulis (ALC), was studied in ICR mice. Different doses of ALC were intragastrically administered to mice once a day, prior to radiation. After two weeks, the mice received a one-time 5 Gy whole body (60)Coγ radiation. The spleen index, thymus index, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and glutathione (GSH) content in liver tissue were measured. Compared with the radiation control group, the levels of MDA in all ALC treated groups decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Moreover, the GSH content, activities of SOD and GSH-Px in liver tissue were enhanced significantly (p < 0.05) in all ALC groups. These results demonstrate that ALC may be a potential radioprotector, and a further study of the molecular mechanism is needed for further application.

 

5.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2012;58(4):272-7.

Anti-allergic properties of a matured fruit extract of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in mite-sensitized mice.

Karasawa K1Otani H.

Author information: 
1Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Nagano, Japan.

Abstract

The effects of oral ingestion of a hot water extract of matured fruit of the date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on allergic responses were investigated in mite-sensitized mice. Sneezing and nose rubbing events in mice given a date extract-added diet were significantly lower than in those given an extract-free (control) diet. The serum total and mite antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and the number of spleen interleukin-4(+)CD4(+), IgE(+)B220(+) and FcεRIα(+)CD117(+) cells was significantly lower in mice given the date extract-added diet than in those given the control diet. Chlorogenic acid, pelargonin and ferulic acid significantly reduced the number of IgE(+)B220(+) cells, while chlorogenic acid and pelargonin significantly decreased the number of FcεRIα(+)CD117(+) cells in mousespleen cell cultures. These results suggest that some polyphenols in the date may reduce mite-induced allergic symptoms in mice via a decrease in the number of IgE-producing plasma cells and high-affinity IgE receptor-expressing mast cells.

 

6.

J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2011;30(1):55-70.

Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

Sisodia R1Singh SMundotiya CMeghnani ESrivastava P.

Author information: 
1Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur. rashsisodia@yahoo.co.in

Abstract

Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed.

 

7.

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 9;57(17):7681-6. doi: 10.1021/jf901341b.

Distribution and excretion of bilberry anthocyanins [corrected] in mice.

Sakakibara H1Ogawa TKoyanagi AKobayashi SGoda TKumazawa SKobayashi HShimoi K.

Author information: 
1Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

Erratum in

·  J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 28;57(20):9856.

Abstract

The physiology and tissue distribution of bilberry anthocyanins were studied in mice. After oral administration of bilberry extract (100 mg/kg body weight), both unmodified and methylated anthocyanins appeared in the plasma. The plasma concentration of total anthocyanins reached a maximum of 1.18 +/- 0.3 microM after 15 min and then sharply decreased. Their urinary excretion was highest between 0 and 6 h after administration and had ceased by 24 h. The total quantities of bilberry anthocyanins excreted into urine represented 1.88% (range, 0.62% to 2.45%) of consumed anthocyanins. Thirteen anthocyanins were identified in bilberry extracts. Of these, malvidin-3-glucoside and -3-galactoside were the principal anthocyanins in the plasma 60 min after administration. When mice were maintained for 2 weeks on a diet containing 0.5% of bilberry extracts, the plasma concentration of anthocyanins reached a maximum of 0.26 muM. Anthocyanins were detected only in the liver, kidney, testes, and lung, with maximum tissue concentrations of 605, 207, 149, and 116 pmol/g, respectively. In these organs, malvidin-3-glucoside and -3-galactoside were the predominant anthocyanins. Anthocyanins were not detectable in the spleen, thymus, heart, muscle, brain, white fat, or eyes. We conclude that bilberry anthocyanins were absorbed into the body and distributed in specific organs, particularly the liver, kidney, and testis. The most common anthocyanins in tissues were malvidin glycosides.

 

8.

Biofactors. 2007;29(1):55-65.

Protective effect of anthocyanin-rich extract from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) against myelotoxicity induced by 5-fluorouracil.

Choi EH1Ok HEYoon YMagnuson BAKim MKChun HS.

Author information: 
1Food Safety Research Division, Korea Food Research Institute, San 46-1, Backhyun, Bundang-gu, Sungnam, Kyonggi-do, 463-746, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

The toxicities associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a potent broad-spectrum chemotherapeutic agent, can not only affect the morbidity and the efficacy of chemotherapy but also limit its clinical use. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a commercial anthocyanin-rich extract from bilberry (AREB) against 5-FU-induced myelotoxicity in vivo, and against chemosensitivity to 5-FU in vitro. A single injection of 5-FU at 200 mg/kg induced severe peripheral erythrocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and leucopenia as well as hypocellularity of the spleen and bone marrow in C57BL/6 mice. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg of AREB for 10 days significantly increased the number of red blood cells, neutrophils, and monocytes in peripheral blood to 1.2-fold, 9-fold, and 6-fold, respectively, compared with those seen after treatment with 5-FU alone (p< 0.05-0.001). The hypocellularity of the spleen and bone marrow caused by 5-FU was also distinctly alleviated in the AREB-treated group. Furthermore, AREB treatment with 50 and 100 microg/ml as a monomeric anthocyanin did not interfere with, but rather enhanced the chemotherapeutic efficacy of 5-FU in vitro. These results suggest that AREB may have protective potential against 5-FU-induced myelotoxiciy and/or the ability to enhance the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of 5-FU.

PMID: 17611294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Related citations

 

9.

Br J Nutr. 2006 Jan;95(1):51-8.

Absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of pelargonidin and its metabolites following oral administration to rats.

El Mohsen MA1Marks JKuhnle GMoore KDebnam EKaila Srai SRice-Evans CSpencer JP.

Author information: 
1Antioxidant Research Group, Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, GKT School of Biomedical Sciences, King's College, London SE1 9RT, UK.

Abstract

Recent reports have demonstrated various cardiovascular and neurological benefits associated with the consumption of foods rich in anthocyanidins. However, information regarding absorption, metabolism, and especially, tissue distribution are only beginning to accumulate. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence and the kinetics of various circulating pelargonidin metabolites, and we aimed at providing initial information with regard to tissue distribution. Based on HPLC and LC-MS analyses we demonstrate that pelargonidin is absorbed and present in plasma following oral gavage to rats. In addition, the main structurally related pelargonidin metabolite identified in plasma and urine was pelargonidin glucuronide. Furthermore, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, a ring fission product of pelargonidin, was detected in plasma and urine samples obtained at 2 and 18 h after ingestion. At 2 h post-gavage, pelargonidin glucuronide was the major metabolite detected in kidney and liver, with levels reaching 0.5 and 0.15 nmol pelargonidin equivalents/g tissue, respectively. Brain and lung tissues contained detectable levels of the aglycone, with the glucuronide also present in the lungs. Other tissues, including spleen and heart, did not contain detectable levels of pelargonidin or ensuing metabolites. At 18 h post-gavage, tissue analyses did not reveal detectable levels of the aglycone nor of pelargonidin glucuronides. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the overall uptake of the administered pelargonidin was 18 % after 2 h, with the majority of the detected levels located in the stomach. However, the amounts recovered dropped to 1.2 % only 18 h post-gavage, with the urine and faecal content constituting almost 90 % of the total recovered pelargonidin.

 

10.

Carcinogenesis. 2003 Aug;24(8):1379-88. Epub 2003 Jun 5.

Dietary feeding of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds prevents photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice: relationship to decreased fat and lipid peroxidation.

Mittal A1Elmets CAKatiyar SK.

Author information: 
1Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Abstract

The use of dietary botanicals is receiving considerable interest in the protection of skin from the adverse biological effects of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Dietary feeding of proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds (GSP) (0.2 and 0.5%, w/w) in AIN76 control diet to SKH-1 hairless mice resulted in prevention of photocarcinogenesis in terms of tumor incidence (20-95%), tumor multiplicity (46-95%) and tumor size (29-94%) against UVB-induced complete (both initiation + promotion), initiation and promotion stages of photocarcinogenesis. Feeding of GSP (0.5%, w/w) also resulted in prevention of malignant transformation of UVB-induced papillomas to carcinomas in terms of carcinoma incidence (45%), carcinoma multiplicity (61%) and carcinoma size (75%) compared with non-GSP treated mice following UVB-induced complete carcinogenesis protocol at the end of 30 weeks. Biochemical analysis revealed that treatment of GSP in vivo and in vitro systems significantly inhibited UVB- or Fe3+-induced lipid peroxidation by 57-66% (P<0.01) and 41-77% (P< 0.05-0.001), respectively, thus suggesting the antioxidant mechanism of photoprotection by GSP. Long-term feeding of GSP did not show apparent signs of toxicity in mice when determined in terms of body weight, diet consumption and physical characteristics of internal body organs likespleen, liver and kidney. Feeding of GSP also did not show apparent signs of toxicity when determined in terms of total body mass (mass of lean + fat), total bone mineral density and total bone mineral content by employing dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). DXA analysis also revealed that feeding of GSP significantly decreased tissue fat level (24-27%, P<0.05) without changing the total body mass of the animals compared with non-GSP-fed animals. This can be attributed to increased lipolysis or decreased synthesis of fat due to administration of GSP. Together, it can be suggested that inhibition of photocarcinogenesis by GSP treatment may be associated with the reduction in UVB-induced oxidative damage and tissue fat content.

 

11.

Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1990;16(4):31-6.

Antiradiation properties of alpha tocopherol, anthocyans, and pyracetam administered combined as a pretreatment course.

Minkova M1Drenska DPantev TOvcharov R.

Author information: 
1Research Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Radiobiology and Radiation Hygiene, Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Abstract

The effects of an pretreatment course (2 x 5 days) combining vitamin E 20 mg/kg, anthocyans 50 mg/kg, and pyracetam 200 mg/kg on animal survival after lethal irradiation (8 Gy) and blood formation after sublethal irradiation (6 Gy) were studied in mice. Assessments were based on records of an integral criterion, 30-day survival, of spleenweight and cellularity, and of bone-marrow cellularity. Pretreatment with the mixture distinctly raised survival rate (50%) in the protected population. The effect observed was shown to result from potentiating interactions between mixture components. Blood-forming organs experienced less radiation damage, and recovery processes in them were stimulated.

 

 

 

endocrin

 

1.

Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2012 Jan;6(1):67-72.

Anti diabetic effect of cherries in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

Lachin T1Reza H.

Author information: 
1Department of Biology, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. tahsini273@yahoo.com

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder in the endocrine system resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both of them. Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Cherry as a traditionally used plant for treatment of diabetes, is packed with powerful plant pigments called anthocyanins. They give cherries their dark red color and are one of the richest antioxidant sources which lower the blood sugar and bear other beneficial health effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of cherry fruit on alloxan induced diabetic rats. In this study 36 Male Wistar rats, body weight of 150-200gr were divided into 6 groups. Diabetes was induced by intra peritoneal injection of 120 mg/kg Alloxan. The duration of the cherries treatment was 30 days in which single dose of extracts (200mg/kg) were oral administered to diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were estimated with glucometer before treatment, 2h and 1- 4 weeks after administration of extracts. Treatment with extracts of the cherries resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and urinary microalbumin and an increase in the creatinine secretion level in urea. Extract of this plant is useful in controlling the blood glucose level. Cherries appear to aid in diabetes control and diminution of the complications of the disease. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this article.

 

 

testis

 

1.

Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Jan;7(1):41-4.

Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and its anthocyanins on some reproductive aspects in rats.

Ali BH1Al-Lawati IBeegam SZiada AAl Salam SNemmar ABlunden G.

Author information: 
1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod, Oman. alibadreldin@hotmail.com

Abstract

An aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a common beverage in many parts of the world. Reports on its effect on reproduction are conflicting, with anecdotal evidence that the plant is an aphrodisiac, while others report that it is estrogenic, and adversely affects spermatogenesis in rats. We have studied the effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa calyces (10%, 15% and 20%) used as drinking water for 10 consecutive weeks, and its anthocyanins (50, 100, 200 mg/kg for 5 days, orally) on the weight and histology of the testis, and on some biochemical constituents in testicular homogenates, in addition to the plasma concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol. The possible presence of an estrogenic effect of the extract andanthocyanins on the uteri of immature female rats was also tested. Neither the H. sabdariffa extract nor the anthocyanins significantly altered either testicular weight and histology, or uterus weight. Plasma concentrations of the three hormones studied, the testicular concentrations of protein, reduced glutathione and total cholesterol, and superoxide dismutase activity were all insignificantly affected by either the extract or the anthocyanins, except for a slight, but statistically significant, decrease in testicular protein concentration caused by the 15% aqueous extract when compared with controls. These results suggest that H. sabdariffa exerts no adverse effect on the male reproductive system. Consumption of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract inhibited the growth of the rats compared with the controls.

 

2.

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 9;57(17):7681-6. doi: 10.1021/jf901341b.

Distribution and excretion of bilberry anthocyanins [corrected] in mice.

Sakakibara H1Ogawa TKoyanagi AKobayashi SGoda TKumazawa SKobayashi HShimoi K.

Author information: 
1Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

Erratum in

·  J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Oct 28;57(20):9856.

Abstract

The physiology and tissue distribution of bilberry anthocyanins were studied in mice. After oral administration of bilberry extract (100 mg/kg body weight), both unmodified and methylated anthocyanins appeared in the plasma. The plasma concentration of total anthocyanins reached a maximum of 1.18 +/- 0.3 microM after 15 min and then sharply decreased. Their urinary excretion was highest between 0 and 6 h after administration and had ceased by 24 h. The total quantities of bilberry anthocyanins excreted into urine represented 1.88% (range, 0.62% to 2.45%) of consumed anthocyanins. Thirteen anthocyanins were identified in bilberry extracts. Of these, malvidin-3-glucoside and -3-galactoside were the principal anthocyanins in the plasma 60 min after administration. When mice were maintained for 2 weeks on a diet containing 0.5% of bilberry extracts, the plasma concentration of anthocyanins reached a maximum of 0.26 muM. Anthocyanins were detected only in the liver, kidney, testes, and lung, with maximum tissue concentrations of 605, 207, 149, and 116 pmol/g, respectively. In these organs, malvidin-3-glucoside and -3-galactoside were the predominant anthocyanins. Anthocyanins were not detectable in the spleen, thymus, heart, muscle, brain, white fat, or eyes. We conclude that bilberry anthocyanins were absorbed into the body and distributed in specific organs, particularly the liver, kidney, and testis. The most common anthocyanins in tissues were malvidin glycosides.

 

 

3.

J Radiol Prot. 2009 Sep;29(3):429-43. doi: 10.1088/0952-4746/29/3/007. Epub 2009 Aug 18.

Evaluation of the free radical scavenging activity and radioprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica fruit.

Sharma KV1Sisodia R.

Author information: 
1Radiation Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.

Abstract

The radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit (GAE) which containsanthocyanin-type cyanidin 3-glucoside, vitamins C and A, minerals, carotenes and dietary fibre was studied. For the study Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups: (1) control (vehicle treated); (2) GAE treated (700 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 15 days); (3) irradiated (5 Gy); (4) GAE+irradiated and (5) irradiated+GAE treated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content and depletion in glutathione (GSH) and protein levels at all intervals studied, namely 1-30 days, in comparison to the control group. Treatment of mice with GAE before and after irradiation caused a significant depletion in TBARS content followed by a significant elevation in GSH and protein concentration in the intestine and testis of mice at all post-irradiation autopsy intervals in comparison to irradiated mice. Significant protection of DNA and RNA in testis was also noticed. GAE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) and O(2)(-) assays and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity in protein carbonyl assay in a dose-dependent manner. The above results prove the radioprotective efficacy of GAE.

 

 

obesity

 

1.

Anthocyanins inhibit lipogenesis during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

Abstract

Anthocyanins have been shown to suppress body weight and fat mass in animal studies. However, the effect of anthocyanins on the process of lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation is not fully understood and the lipogenic transcription factors regulated by anthocyanins have not been identified. We investigated the effects of anthocyanins on lipogenesis pathways during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Anthocyaninsreduced triglyceride (TG) accumulation in a dose-dependent manner during adipocyte differentiation. Accumulation of TG was rapidly reversed by anthocyanin withdrawal. Anthocyanins markedly reduced gene and protein expression levels of lipogenic transcription factors such as liver X receptor α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ, and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-α. In addition, the target gene and protein expression of these lipogenic transcription factors such as fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α were markedly suppressed byanthocyanins. Thus, anthocyanins suppress lipid accumulation in adipocytes due to broad inhibition of the transcription factors regulating lipogenesis. This may partially explain the mechanism by which anthocyaninsexert their anti-obesity effect.

 

2.

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 May;65(3):351-9. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2013.854749. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

Inhibitory effects of sweet cherry anthocyanins on the obesity development in C57BL/6 mice.

Abstract

In the present study, purified sweet cherry anthocyanins (CACN) were evaluated to determine their inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and their anti-obesity properties in male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). CACN prevented HFD-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. In vivo experiment revealed that 40 and 200 mg/kg of CACN in food reduced the body weight by 5.2% and 11.2%, respectively. CACN supplementation could also reduce the size of adipocytes, leptin secretion, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and liver triglycerides. Furthermore, CACN could effectively reduce the expression levels of IL-6 and TNFα genes, markedly increase the SOD and GPx activity. Our results indicated that CACN slowed down the development of HFD-induced obesity in male C57BL/6 mice.

 

3.

J Sci Food Agric. 2014 Apr;94(6):1090-100. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6370. Epub 2013 Sep 24.

Evaluation of sensorial, phytochemical and biological properties of new isotonic beverages enriched with lemon and berries during shelf life.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The aim of this work was to design new isotonic drinks with lemon juice and berries: maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), following previous research. Quality parameters, sensorial attributes, antioxidant activities (ABTS(+), DPPH(•) and O2(•-) assays) and biological capacities (α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory assays) were evaluated over 70 days of shelf-life period.

RESULTS:

Maqui isotonic blends were the most active in all antioxidant assays (8.35 and 3.07 mmol L(-1) Trolox for ABTS(+) and DPPH(•)), in the lipase inhibitory assay (43.19 U L(-1)), and showed the highest total phenol content by the Folin-Ciocalteu test (80.97 mg 100 mL(-1) gallic acid), as a result of its higher content of total anthocyanins (42.42 mg 100 mL(-1)). Berry mixtures were also the most potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase between all samples, and displayed an attractive red colour and good sensorial attributes.

CONCLUSIONS:

All the studied parameters remained quite stable during preservation, in general, and the new isotonic drinks can be useful to equilibrate redox balance in acute and intense exercise, and support weight loss programmes, avoiding triglyceride absorption and hyperglycaemia involved in obesity and diabetes mellitus, respectively. Further research in vivo is necessary to verify their beneficial effects for sports, nutrition and health.

© 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

KEYWORDS:

berries; citrus; diabetes mellitus; isotonic drinks; obesity; storage

 

4.

Eur J Nutr. 2014 Feb 6. [Epub ahead of print]

Polyphenol-rich extract from blackcurrant pomace attenuates the intestinal tract and serum lipid changes induced by a high-fat diet in rabbits.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The consumption of a high level of dietary extract from blackcurrant pomace rich in polyphenols was hypothesised to exert beneficial effects on the serum lipid profile, the markers of insulin resistance and the antioxidant status of the host without negative changes in the intestinal tract.

METHODS:

This hypothesis was tested on 20 male New Zealand white rabbits randomly assigned to four groups of five individuals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were subjected to the following dietary treatments: two control groups were fed a standard or a high-fat diet (7 and 32 % energy from fat, respectively), and two experimental groups were fed a standard or a high-fat diet with the addition of 1.5 % blackcurrant polyphenolic extract. The extract obtained from blackcurrant fruit pomaces was characterised by high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols (48.9 and 17.9 %, respectively).

RESULTS:

The high-fat feeding regimen led to a series of unfavourable changes, such as increased body weight, disturbance of fermentative processes in the hindgut as well the induction of oxidative stress, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Dietary supplementation with blackcurrant extract decreased the concentration of putrefactive metabolites (ammonia and putrefactive SCFA) and β-glucuronidase activity in the hindgut digesta. Additionally, the extract ameliorated hyperlipidaemia by decreasing triglyceride, total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and free fatty acid concentrations in the serum and increased the antioxidant capacity of the serum.

CONCLUSION:

This study suggests that a polyphenol-rich extract from blackcurrant pomace ingested at relatively high amounts may be a useful therapeutic option in the reversal of dysfunctions related to obesity and its complications.

 

5.

Food Chem. 2013 Nov 1;141(1):482-7. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.03.046. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Dietary supplementation with purified mulberry (Morus australis Poir) anthocyaninssuppresses body weight gain in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice.

Abstract

We present our experiment about adding anthocyanins to the daily food of mice. Three kinds of anthocyanins(cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside) purified from Chinese mulberry (Morus australis Poir) were evaluated for suppressing body weight gain of the male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results from a 12-week experiment show that consumption of purified mulberryanthocyanins (MACN) of 40 or 200mg/kg can significantly inhibit body weight gain, reduce the resistance to insulin, lower the size of adipocytes, attenuate lipid accumulation and decrease the leptin secretion. Thus, dietary supplementation with MACN can protect against body weight gain of the diet-induced obese mice.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

6.

Food Funct. 2013 Nov;4(11):1654-61. doi: 10.1039/c3fo60251f.

Honeysuckle anthocyanin supplementation prevents diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice.

Abstract

This study investigated the anti-obesity effects of honeysuckle anthocyanins (HA) in a high fat diet-induced mouse model. The mice were initially fed with a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD-fed mice were divided into five groups, with 12 mice in each group, including a HFD group, a HFD plus Orlistat group, and three HFD plus HA (at a dose of 50, 100, or 200 mg kg(-1)) groups, for another 8-week experiment. HA at 100 or 200 mg kg(-1) can suppress body weight gain, reduce serum and liver lipid profiles, ameliorate impaired hepatic function, and significantly increase serum adiponectin concentration while decreasing serum insulin and leptin levels. These results suggest that the anti-obesity effect of HA might be through the blockage of lipid accumulation.

 

7.

Neuropeptides. 2013 Oct;47(5):347-53. doi: 10.1016/j.npep.2013.06.001. Epub 2013 Jul 2.

Anthocyanins attenuate body weight gain via modulating neuropeptide Y and GABAB1 receptor in rats hypothalamus.

Abstract

Anthocyanins in a variety of plant species have been identified and are known for its hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects. The effect of anthocyanins extracted from black soybean on body weight and daily food intake in adult rats raised on normal diet were studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily intra-gastric administered water or anthocyanins 6 mg/kg and 24 mg/kg for 40 days. During this period daily food intake and body weight were measured prior to anthocyanins treatment. These findings showed that anthocyaninstreatment resulted in significantly lowered body weight and food intake compared with water treated rats. In addition, anthocyanins dose dependently reduced the adipose tissue size compared with control group. Western blot analysis showed that high dose of anthocyanins treatment significantly reduced the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and increased γ-amino butyric acid receptor (GABAB1R) in hypothalamus. Furthermore, these events were followed by a decreased in expression of GABAB1R downstream signaling molecules protein kinase A-α (PKA) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB) in hypothalamus. These data support the concept that anthocyanins even in normal circumstances have the capability to reduce body weight and food intake through its modulatory effect on NPY and GABAB1R in hypothalamus. These results suggest that anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat might have a novel role in preventing obesity in rats on normal diet.

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Anthocyanins; GABA(B1) receptor; Neuropeptide Y; Obesity; PKA; p-CREB

P

8.

Br J Nutr. 2013 Aug 28;110(3):447-55. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512005090. Epub 2013 Feb 18.

Freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder improves insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed mice.

Abstract

The peel of the native Brazilian fruit jaboticaba is rich in anthocyanins, which are known for their anti-obesityeffects in animal models. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder (FDJPP) on a number of metabolic parameters in a model of diet-induced obesity. Mice (n 8 per group) were initially fed on a high-fat diet (HFD, 35% w/w) for 4 weeks and then switched to a HFD supplemented with FDJPP (1, 2 or 4% w/w) for an additional 6 weeks. Energy intake, weight loss, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and lipid profile were determined, and the results were evaluated using ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. The FDJPP exerted no protective effect on HFD-induced weight gain, hyperleptinaemia and glucose intolerance. However, the supplementation was effective to reduce insulin resistance, as evidenced in the insulin tolerance test, and subsequently confirmed by improved signal transduction through the insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate-1/Akt/forkhead box protein pathway and by the attenuation of HFD-induced inflammation in the liver, verified by lower expressions of IL-1b and IL-6 and decreased phosphorylated IkB-a protein levels in all jaboticaba-treated mice. These results suggest that FDJPP may exert a protective role against obesity-associated insulin resistance.

 

9.

PLoS One. 2013 Jun 18;8(6):e66690. Print 2013.

Anthocyanin-Rich Juice Lowers Serum Cholesterol, Leptin, and Resistin and Improves Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Fischer Rats.

Abstract

Obesity and obesity-associated diseases e.g. cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are spread worldwide. Anthocyanins are supposed to have health-promoting properties, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins on several risk factors forobesity-associated diseases. Therefore, Fischer rats were fed anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice or ananthocyanin-depleted control juice for 10 weeks. Intervention with anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice reduced serum cholesterol and tended to decrease serum triglycerides. No effects were seen for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin. Anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice intervention reduced serum leptin and resistin, but showed no influence on serum adiponectin and secretion of adipokines from mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the amount of saturated fatty acids in plasma. These results indicate that anthocyaninspossess a preventive potential for obesity-associated diseases.

 

10.

PLoS One. 2013 Jun 5;8(6):e65355. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065355. Print 2013.

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in RAW264.7 macrophages of malvidin, a major red wine polyphenol.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. METHODS FINDINGS: The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation.

CONCLUSIONS:

These effects of malvidin may explain the previous findings and at least partially account for the positive effects of moderate red wine consumption on inflammation-mediated chronic maladies such asobesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

 

11.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2013 Jun;91(6):480-8. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-2012-0349. Epub 2013 Jan 2.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of dried purple carrot on body mass, lipids, blood pressure, body composition, and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese adults: the QUENCH trial.

Abstract

Obesity is a significant health issue worldwide and is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation predisposing the individual to cardiovascular disease and impaired blood glucose homeostasis. Anthocyaninsand phenolic acids from purple carrots are effective at reversing inflammation and metabolic alterations in animal models, potentially through inhibition of inflammatory pathways. The effects of dried purple carrot on body mass, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, inflammatory markers, liver function tests, and appetite were investigated in 16 males (aged 53.1 ± 7.6 years and with a mean BMI of 32.8 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) with normal lipid and inflammatory markers. There was no evidence that 118.5 mg/day of anthocyanins and 259.2 mg/day of phenolic acids for 4 weeks resulted in statistically significant changes in body mass, body composition, appetite, dietary intake, low density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, blood pressure, or C-reactive protein in these obese participants at the dose and length of intervention used in this trial. High density lipoprotein cholesterol was lower in the intervention group (p < 0.05). Aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase did not change, indicating that the intervention was safe. More studies are required to establish the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic effects of purple carrot anthocyanins and phenolic acids prior to further trials of efficacy with respect to treating inflammation and metabolic alterations.

 

12.

An Acad Bras Cienc. 2013 Mar;85(1):355-63. Epub 2013 Mar 1.

Effects of diet supplementation with Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) fruit in a rat model of diet-induced obesity.

Abstract

Amazonian Camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh) has attracted interest from food and cosmetics industries because of its rich content of vitamin C, flavonoids and anthocyanins. The goal of this study was investigates the antiobesity action of the ingestion of the Camu-camu pulp in a rat model of diet-inducedobesity. Wistar rats with obesity induced by subcutaneous injection of monosodium glutamate receiving diet ad libitum. The rats were divided in two groups: an experimental group that ingested 25 mL/day of Camu-camu pulp (CCG) and a non treated group (CG). After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Blood, liver, heart, white adipose tissues were collected and weighted, biochemical and inflammatory profiles were determinate as well. Animals that received the pulp of Camu-camu reduced their weights of the fat in white adipose tissues, glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and insulin blood levels. There was an increase in HDL-c levels. No change was observed in inflammatory markers and liver enzymes. Camu-camu pulp was able to improve the biochemical profile of obesity in rats suggesting that this Amazonian fruit can be further used such a functional food ingredient in control of chronic diseases linked to obesity.

 

13.

Acta Ophthalmol. 2013 Feb;91(1):6-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2011.02357.x. Epub 2012 Jan 23.

Lifestyle modification, nutritional and vitamins supplements for age-related macular degeneration.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To provide a systematic review of the published studies pertaining to the lifestyle modification, dietary, nutritional and vitamins supplements for preventing occurrence or halting deterioration of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

METHODS:

The literature searches from 1990 to December 2010 with following keywords, 'age related macular degeneration', 'nutrition', 'antioxidant', 'diet' and 'vitamins supplements' using search engines Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline and the Cochrane Library. Meta-analyses, population-based cohort studies and case-controlled trials were reviewed, whereas small cases series, case reports, commentaries, abstracts in proceedings or personal observations were excluded.

RESULTS:

Smoking and obesity are identified risk factors for AMD. High dietary intakes of omega-3 fatty acids, and macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin have been associated with a lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. Vitamin B and extracts from wolfberry, Gingko biloba and berry anthocyanins were also subjects of intense research interests, but there has been no concluding scientific evidence yet. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) is the only large-scale randomized controlled clinical trial to show beneficial effect of AREDS formulation of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc with copper in reducing the risk progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with advanced AMD in one eye.

CONCLUSION:

Quit smoking is an important advice to patients to prevent or slow the progress of AMD. There is no recommendation for routine nutritional or vitamins supplementation for primary prevention. However, patients with documented intermediate risk of AMD or advanced AMD in one eye are recommended to take AREDS-type vitamin supplements.

© 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

 

14.

Curr Med Chem. 2013;20(37):4665-79.

Interaction of anthocyanins with drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes.

Abstract

Anthocyanins are generally considered to be the largest and the most important group of water-soluble pigments in plants. They are widely consumed by humans as natural compounds of vegetables, fruits, and red wine. Anthocyanins as well as other flavonoids show protective qualities against variety of pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, neurodegeneration, inflammation, viral infections, and obesity. Many healthy properties of anthocyanins are related to their antioxidant potency. Broad evidence of beneficial effects of anthocyanins on human health has led to their increasing popularity in the form of food supplements and nutraceuticals. As the nutraceuticals contain concentrated bioactive agents, consumed doses exceed those that could be obtained from food. Therefore, apart from anticipated improvement of human health it is essential to have in mind possible unexpected effects of anthocyanins. Interaction of these compounds with drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters may affect the fate of co-administered drugs and thus exert pharmacological consequences. On the other hand, the modulation of certain drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes by anthocyanins can contribute to chemoprotection and antioxidant defense of organisms. The present review summarizes anthocyanin properties with emphasis on the antioxidant capacity and deals with the potential of anthocyanins to modulate phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters and antioxidant enzymes. The undesirable and/or beneficial outcomes of possible interactions ofanthocyanins with drugs or industrial pollutants are also discussed.

 

15.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:789764. doi: 10.1155/2013/789764. Epub 2013 Apr 30.

Preventive and prophylactic mechanisms of action of pomegranate bioactive constituents.

Abstract

Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins), punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases.

 

16.

Food Funct. 2013 Jan;4(1):19-39. doi: 10.1039/c2fo30034f. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome.

Abstract

Pomegranate is an ancient fruit that is still part of the diet in the Mediterranean area, the Middle East, and India. Health-promoting effects have long been attributed to this fruit. Modern research corroborates the use of pomegranate as a folk remedy for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and is responsible for a new evaluation of nutritional and pharmaceutical aspects of pomegranate in the general public. In the last decade, industry and agricultural production have been adapted to meet higher market demands for pomegranate. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that pomegranate exerts hypoglycaemic effects, including increased insulin sensitivity, inhibition of α-glucosidase, and impact on glucose transporter type 4 function, but is also responsible for a reduction of total cholesterol, and the improvement of blood lipid profiles, as well as anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways. These effects may also explain how pomegranate-derived compounds function in the amelioration of adverse health effects caused by metabolic syndrome. Pomegranate contains polyphenols such as ellagitannins and anthocyanins, as well as phenolic acids, fatty acids and a variety of volatile compounds. Ellagitannins are some of the most prevalent compounds present in pomegranate, and may be responsible for certain benevolent characteristics associated with pomegranate. A brief overview of rising health problems due to obesity will be provided, followed by characterisation of the biological activity, bioavailability, and safety of pomegranate and pomegranate-derived compounds. Although the fruit is consumed in many countries, epidemiological and clinical studies are unavailable. Additional research is necessary to corroborate the promise of current in vivo and in vitro findings.

 

17.

J Tradit Complement Med. 2013 Jan;3(1):7-15. doi: 10.4103/2225-4110.106535.

Mulberry ( sang shèn zǐ) and its bioactive compounds, the chemoprevention effects and molecular mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.

Abstract

Mulberry ( sāng shèn zǐ), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in Taiwan, has many bioactive substances, including polyphenol and anthocyanins compounds. Over the past decade, many scientific and medical studies have examined mulberry fruit for its antioxidation and antiinflammation effects both in vitro and in vivo. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of mulberry extracts (MEs) and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancer, liver disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The ME modulates several apoptotic pathways and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to block cancer progression. Mulberry can increase detoxicated and antioxidant enzyme activities and regulate the lipid metabolism to treat hepatic disease resulting from alcohol consumption, high fat diet, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and CCl4 exposure. Of the various compounds in ME, cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant, and the active compound studied in mulberry research. Herein, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions of C3G to improve diabetes and cardiovascular disease are also discussed. These studies provide strong evidence ME may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Chemoprevention effects; Cyanidin-3-glucoside; Mulberry extracts (ME); Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)

 

18.

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:145421. doi: 10.1155/2013/145421. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Dietary anthocyanins as nutritional therapy for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined by excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, is the hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Due to the epidemics of obesity, NAFLD is rapidly becoming the leading cause of altered liver enzymes in Western countries. NAFLD encompasses a wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from simple uncomplicated steatosis, to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Diet may affect the development of NAFLD either by increasing risk or by providing protective factors. Therefore, it is important to investigate the role of foods and/or food bioactives on the metabolic processes involved in steatohepatitis for preventive strategies. It has been reported that anthocyanins (ACNs) decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and may counteract oxidative stress and hepatic inflammation, but their impact on NAFLD has yet to be fully determined. ACNs are water-soluble bioactive compounds of the polyphenol class present in many vegetable products. Here, we summarize the evidence evaluating the mechanisms of action of ACNs on hepatic lipid metabolism in different experimental setting: in vitro, in vivo, and in human trials. Finally, a working model depicting the possible mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects of ACNs in NAFLD is proposed, based on the available literature.

 

19.

PLoS One. 2013 Oct 15;8(10):e77585. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077585. eCollection 2013.

Blueberry and mulberry juice prevent obesity development in C57BL/6 mice.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice,anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity.

DESIGN:

And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed.

RESULTS:

Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin.

CONCLUSION:

These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity.

 

20.

J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Dec;23(12):1725-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.12.004. Epub 2012 May 21.

Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

Abstract

Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, P<.01) and moderately correlated with ORAC (r=0.34, P<.05). Pearson correlation analyses showed that plasma TAC values by VCEAC and ORAC had positive correlation with plasma uric acid (r=0.56 for VCEAC; r=0.49 for ORAC) and total phenolics (r=0.63 for VCEAC; r=0.36 for ORAC). However, TAC measured by FRAP was correlated only with uric acid (r=0.69). After multivariate adjustment, plasma TAC determined by VCEAC was positively associated with dietary intakes of γ-tocopherol (P<.001), β-carotene (P<.05), anthocyanidins (P<.05), flavones (P<.05), proanthocyanidins (P<.01) and TAC (P<.05), as well as with plasma total phenolics (P<.05), α-tocopherol (P<.001), β-cryptoxanthin (P<.05) and uric acid (P<.05). The findings indicate that plasma TAC measured by VCEAC reflects both dietary and plasma antioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

 

21.

Nutr Res. 2012 Oct;32(10):770-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2012.06.008. Epub 2012 Jul 20.

Black soybean anthocyanins inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

Abstract

Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenolic pigments in plants that have been shown to decrease weight gain and insulin resistance in mice-fed high-fat diets. We investigated the effects of anthocyanins on cell growth, differentiation, and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells to test our hypothesis that anthocyanins could reduce adipose tissue mass by acting directly on adipocytes. Anthocyanin extracts from black soybeans were used and composed of 3 of the following major anthocyanins: cyanidine-3-O-glucoside (68.3%), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (25.2%), and petunidin-3-O-glucoside (6.5%). Treatment with 12.5 and 50 μg/mL of black soybeananthocyanins exhibited inhibitory effects on the proliferation of both preconfluent preadipocytes (P < .01) and maturing postconfluent adipocytes (P < .01). In fully differentiated adipocytes, the number of viable cells was reduced by black soybean anthocyanins (P < .01). Treatment with 50 μg/mL of black soybean anthocyaninsslightly increased epinephrine-induced lipolysis but decreased the basal lipolysis of fully differentiated adipocytes (P < .05). Black soybean anthocyanins also reduced lipid accumulation and suppressed the expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, a major transcription factor for the adipogenic gene (P < .01). These results suggest that black soybean anthocyanins inhibit adipocyte differentiation and basal lipolysis, which may contribute to their antiobesity and antidiabetic properties.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

 

22.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2012 Sep;50(9):3040-7. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.06.015. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside, a typical anthocyanin, exhibits antilipolytic effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes during hyperglycemia: involvement of FoxO1-mediated transcription of adipose triglyceride lipase.

Abstract

Elevated concentrations of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) have been demonstrated to potentially link obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of lipolysis reduces FFAs availability and improves insulin sensitivity. Anthocyanins from different plant foods were shown to improve hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in vivo. In this study, cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (C3G), a typical anthocyanin was selected to examine its in vitro effects on high-glucose-induced lipolysis in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Incubation with C3G efficiently inhibited FFAs and glycerol release from the adipocytes during hyperglycemia in a dose- and time-dependent manner. C3G treatment also increased the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase, decreased the activity of glutamine:fructose 6-phosphate aminotransferase, reduced cellular UDP-N-acetylglucosamine production, thereby suppressing the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. In addition, C3G attenuated high-glucose-promoted O-glycosylation of transcription factor FoxO1, resulting in decreased expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Our findings reveal a novel mechanism by which anthocyaninregulates FoxO1-mediated transcription of ATGL and thus inhibits adipocyte lipolysis, suggesting its potential therapeutic application in diabetes-associated hyperlipidemia.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

 

23.

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Sep;63(6):749-65. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2011.649250. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Bioactive compounds with effects on inflammation markers in humans.

Abstract

Obesity and other chronic diseases are accompanied by adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, muscle and brain low-grade chronic inflammation. Indeed, the obese condition and metabolic syndrome are characterized by an increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of immune cells in adipocytes. The inflammatory response promotes the activation of transcriptional factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to an unresolved inflammatory response associated with an inhibition of insulin signalling and high risk for cardiovascular events. Epidemiological and intervention studies have been carried out to find out dietary patterns, foods and bioactive compounds with protective anti-inflammatory actions. The most studied compounds are polyphenols, especially isoflavone and anthocyanin, but quercertin, catechin and resveratrol have also been investigated. Furthermore, some studies have reported the effects of milk peptides, plant sterol and stanol, l-carnitine and α-lipoic acid on inflammatory processes. This review aimed to collect and discuss those relevant studies reported in the scientific literature following a systematic scientific search about the effect of such bioactive compounds on inflammation in humans.

 

24.

J Food Sci. 2012 Sep;77(9):C927-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2012.02848.x. Epub 2012 Aug 13.

Phenolic antioxidants in some Vigna species of legumes and their distinct inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities.

Abstract

Phenolic extracts of 4 Vigna species of legumes (mung bean, moth bean, and black and red varieties of adzuki beans) were evaluated for phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory properties against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Results showed that adzuki bean varieties contain higher phenolic indexes than mung bean and moth beans. Adzuki bean (black) variety was found to be the most active 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion scavenger. However, the hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating abilities were significantly higher in adzuki bean (red) variety. Mung bean exhibited least antioxidant activities in all the methods tested. Phenolic extracts from these legumes also showed distinct variations in the inhibition of enzymes associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Inhibitory activities of all the extracts against lipase were found to be more potent than α-glucosidase. Although, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was superior in the black variety of adzuki bean (IC(50,) 26.28 mg/mL), both adzuki bean varieties (black and red) along with moth bean showed strong inhibitory activities on lipase with no significant difference in their IC(50) values (7.32 to 9.85 mg/mL). These results suggest that Vigna species of legumes are potential source of antioxidant phenolics and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for α-glucosidase and lipase activities. This information may help for effective utilization of these legumes as functional food ingredients for promoting health. Practical Application: Vigna species of legumes are good sources of phenolic antioxidants and strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes and obesity. Therefore, utilization of these legumes in the development of functional foods with increased therapeutic value would be a significant step toward health promotion and wellness.

© 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

 

25.

World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Aug 7;18(29):3862-8. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i29.3862.

Moro orange juice prevents fatty liver in mice.

Abstract

AIM:

To establish if the juice of Moro, an anthocyanin-rich orange, may improve liver damage in mice with diet-induced obesity.

METHODS:

Eight-week-old mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and were administrated water or Moro juice for 12 wk. Liver morphology, gene expression of lipid transcription factors, and metabolic enzymes were assessed.

RESULTS:

Mice fed HFD displayed increased body weight, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Moro juice administration limited body weight gain, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and decreased serum triglycerides and total cholesterol. Mice fed HFD showed liver steatosis associated with ballooning. Dietary Moro juice markedly improved liver steatosis by inducing the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and its target gene acylCoA-oxidase, a key enzyme of lipid oxidation. Consistently, Moro juice consumption suppressed the expression of liver X receptor-α and its target gene fatty acid synthase, and restored liver glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 activity.

CONCLUSION:

Moro juice counteracts liver steatogenesis in mice with diet-induced obesity and thus may represent a promising dietary option for the prevention of fatty liver.

KEYWORDS:

Anthocyanins; Lipid oxidation; Lipogenesis; Liver steatosis

 

26.

Br J Nutr. 2012 Aug;108(4):581-7. doi: 10.1017/S000711451100599X. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

An extract of chokeberry attenuates weight gain and modulates insulin, adipogenic and inflammatory signalling pathways in epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed a fructose-rich diet.

Abstract

Chokeberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, which may contribute to the prevention of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the present study was to determine if an extract from chokeberries would reduce weight gain in rats fed a fructose-rich diet (FRD) and to explore the potential mechanisms related to insulin signalling, adipogenesis and inflammatory-related pathways. Wistar rats were fed a FRD for 6 weeks to induce insulin resistance, with or without chokeberry extract (CBE) added to the drinking-water (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, daily: CBE100 and CBE200). Both doses of CBE consumption lowered epididymal fat, blood glucose, TAG, cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. CBE consumption also elevated plasma adiponectin levels and inhibited plasma TNF-α and IL6, compared with the control group. There were increases in the mRNA expression for Irs1, Irs2, Pi3k, Glut1, Glut4 and Gys1, and decreases in mRNA levels of Gsk3β. The protein and gene expression of adiponectin and Pparγ mRNA levels were up-regulated and Fabp4, Fas and Lpl mRNA levels were inhibited. The levels of gene expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as Il1β, Il6 and Tnfα were lowered, and protein and gene expression of ZFP36 (zinc finger protein) were enhanced in the epididymal adipose tissue of the rats that consumed the CBE200 extract. In summary, these results suggest that the CBE decreased risk factors related to insulin resistance by modulating multiple pathways associated with insulin signalling, adipogenesis and inflammation.

 

27.

Nutrition. 2012 Jun;28(6):595-604. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.013. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Obesity: the preventive role of the pomegranate (Punica granatum).

Abstract

Obesity represents a rapidly growing threat to the health of populations in an increasing number of countries. Diet intervention has been proposed as one of the strategies for weight loss and weight maintenance. Traditionally, the pomegranate, including its roots, tree bark, fruit juice, leaves, and flowers, has been used to treat some conditions such as diarrhea, hemorrhage, acidosis, and microbial infections. Pomegranate extracts have been found to have strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and even antitumor properties in vivo and in vitro. More recently, positive effects on fat reduction have been shown using the pomegranate and its extracts. Many of the beneficial effects are related to the presence of anthocyanins, tannins, and very high levels of antioxidants, including polyphenols and flavonoids. Many studies have explored the effects of the pomegranate in obesity, and various mechanisms have been proposed as to how these different extracts help in fat reduction. This article provides an overview of the work done addressing the potential benefits of the pomegranate on obesity and assesses the efficacy of intervention by means of the pomegranate and its extracts. Human studies in this field are still limited and need more attention that would help in understanding the preventive and protective roles pomegranate extracts have on obesity.

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

 

28.

J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Apr;23(4):349-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2010.12.013. Epub 2011 May 2.

Cyanidin 3-glucoside attenuates obesity-associated insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed and db/db mice via the transcription factor FoxO1.

Abstract

Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, and both conditions are now recognized to possess significant inflammatory components underlying their pathophysiologies. Here, we hypothesized that cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G), a typical anthocyanin reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory properties, would ameliorate obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in mouse models of diabesity. Male C57BL/6J obese mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks and genetically diabetic db/db mice at an age of 6 weeks received dietary C3G supplementation (0.2%) for 5 weeks. We found that dietary C3G lowered fasting glucose levels and markedly improved the insulin sensitivity in both high-fat diet fed and db/db mice as compared with unsupplemented controls. White adipose tissue messenger RNA levels and serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) were reduced by C3G, as did macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue. Concomitantly, hepatic triglyceride content and steatosis were alleviated by C3G. Moreover, C3G treatment decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and promoted phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of forkhead box O1 after refeeding. These findings clearly indicate that C3G has significant potency in antidiabetic effects by modulating the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/forkhead box O1 signaling pathway and the related inflammatory adipocytokines.

Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

 

29.

Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2012 Mar;62(1):37-43.

Freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder rich in anthocyanins did not reduce weight gain and lipid content in mice and rats.

Abstract

Jaboticaba, a native fruit from Brazilian Atlantic Forest, is an important source of anthocyanins. Anthocyaninshave been recently identified as modulators of lipid metabolism and energy expenditure 'in vivo'. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder on obesity treatment in different experimental models. Obese Swiss mice and obese Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 1, 2 and 4% freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder for 6 weeks. Energy intake, weight gain and body composition were determined, and the results were analyzed using variance and Tukey's tests (p < 0.05). The energy intake was higher in mice groups supplemented with 2% and 4% of jaboticaba peel. In relation to weight gain, the mice supplemented with 2% of jaboticaba peel had higher total weight gain than the other experimental groups, while no significant difference in the fat mass accumulation was observed among the groups. The rats did not show significant differences in the evaluated parameters. These results suggest that the supplementation with freeze-dried jaboticaba peel powder, at concentrations of 1, 2 and 4%, was not effective in the reduction of energy intake, weight gain and body fat both in mice and in rats.

 

30.

Plant Cell. 2012 Mar;24(3):1242-55. doi: 10.1105/tpc.111.095232. Epub 2012 Mar 16.

Retrotransposons control fruit-specific, cold-dependent accumulation ofanthocyanins in blood oranges.

Abstract

Traditionally, Sicilian blood oranges (Citrus sinensis) have been associated with cardiovascular health, and consumption has been shown to prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Despite increasing consumer interest in these health-promoting attributes, production of blood oranges remains unreliable due largely to a dependency on cold for full color formation. We show that Sicilian blood orange arose by insertion of a Copia-like retrotransposon adjacent to a gene encoding Ruby, a MYB transcriptional activator of anthocyanin production. The retrotransposon controls Ruby expression, and cold dependency reflects the induction of the retroelement by stress. A blood orange of Chinese origin results from an independent insertion of a similar retrotransposon, and color formation in its fruit is also cold dependent. Our results suggest that transposition and recombination of retroelements are likely important sources of variation in Citrus.

 

31.

Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Jan 13;11:10. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-11-10.

Cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside regulates fatty acid metabolism via an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling pathway in human HepG2 cells.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hepatic metabolic derangements are key components in the development of fatty liver disease. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1) pathway. In this study, cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-g), a typical anthocyanin pigment was used to examine its effects on AMPK activation and fatty acid metabolism in human HepG2 hepatocytes.

RESULTS:

Anthocyanin Cy-3-g increased cellular AMPK activity in a calmodulin kinase kinase dependent manner. Furthermore, Cy-3-g substantially induced AMPK downstream target ACC phosphorylation and inactivation, and then decreased malonyl CoA contents, leading to stimulation of CPT-1 expression and significant increase of fatty acid oxidation in HepG2 cells. These effects of Cy-3-g are largely abolished by pharmacological and genetic inhibition of AMPK.

CONCLUSION:

This study demonstrates that Cy-3-g regulates hepatic lipid homeostasis via an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation by anthocyanin may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

 

32.

Curr Med Chem. 2012;19(26):4462-74.

Mitochondria as potential targets of flavonoids: focus on adipocytes and endothelial cells.

Abstract

Obesity is a major public health problem, resulting from an excess of energy storage and/or a default of energy expenditure leading to the increased occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors that favour the development of vascular complications. As a consequence, many studies are interested to find novel therapeutic chemical including flavonoids that appear to be promising natural compounds to treat obesity and its complications. Several in vitro studies addressed the mechanisms involved that might explain their beneficial effects, on adipocytes and endothelial cells, two cell types that play major role in obesity and its vascular complications. Besides the well-described antioxidant properties of flavonoids, at least a part of their beneficial effects on these cell types might be explained by their action on the regulation of mitochondrial function. In this review, we will therefore focus on the pathophysiological role of mitochondria in regulating endothelial and adipocyte functions. In addition, we will present some of the more promising flavonoids, important in human diet, including flavanols, flavonols, isoflavones, anthocyanins, flavanones and flavones; and their potential effects to improve endothelial or adipocyte functions via the mitochondria.

 

33.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Jan;56(1):159-70. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201100526. Epub 2011 Nov 21.

Dietary anthocyanin-rich plants: biochemical basis and recent progress in health benefits studies.

Abstract

Anthocyanins are one type of flavonoid phytopigment. Although the role of anthocyanins as a functional food factor remains relatively less established than that of other flavonoids, progress in this area has been made at the molecular level in recent years. This review discusses the potential health benefits of plant-derivedanthocyanin-rich foods, with a focus on the role of anthocyanins in obesity control, diabetes control, cardiovascular disease prevention, and improvement of visual and brain functions, areas that have attracted much attention. Such health benefits are not necessarily derived from the antioxidant effect of anthocyanins, but in fact are produced by currently unestablished chemical properties beyond the antioxidant capacity of the molecules. However, a better understanding of the physiological functionality of anthocyanins remains to be elucidated. It is desirable, therefore, to clarify the molecular type and composition of the anthocyanins that confer specific health benefits and to conduct further investigation into the underlying molecular mechanisms. The pharmacological actions of anthocyanins could not be fully established without knowledge on the effects of treatment of anthocyanins alone, the effects of non-anthocyanin components, and the possible interactions between anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin species.

Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

 

34.

Mol Vis. 2012;18:2338-51. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

Bilberries potentially alleviate stress-related retinal gene expression induced by a high-fat diet in mice.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Obesity- and diabetes-associated visual impairment and vascular dysfunctions are increasing as causes of vision loss. The detailed mechanisms of how obesity and diabetes affect eye health are still largely unknown, but animal models have been useful in exploring the effects of potential protective compounds, i.e., compounds characterized by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These properties occur in anthocyanins, and bilberries (European wild blueberries, Vaccinium myrtillus) are a major source of dietaryanthocyanins in Nordic diets. The main aim of the present work was to study the protective effects of dietary bilberries (BB) on the level of gene expression in retinas in mice that develop obesity when fed a high-fat diet (HFD).

METHODS:

Mice (n=6 per group, four groups) were fed ad libitum a normal control diet (NCD), a HFD, or a diet with 5% bilberries (NCD+BB, HFD+BB) for 12 weeks. Food consumption, weight gain, and blood pressure were measured during the feeding period and whole blood serum markers of obesity at sacrifice. Retinas were collected, and RNA extracted from all 24 mice and pooled samples from four mice per group were hybridized to Mouse-Ref8 V2 Expression BeadChips (Illumina platform) with 25,697 probes for genes and transcript variants. The expression profiles in the retinas were analyzed using R, PathVisio, and DAVID to screen for high fat-induced changes as well as for bilberry-induced changes in the HFD up- or downregulated transcripts.

RESULTS:

The HFD and HFD+BB groups gained weight from week 5 and final weight, blood glucose, serum free fatty acids, and systolic blood pressure as compared to mice fed the control diets (Mann-Whitney's U-test, p<0.05). Bilberries had no significant effect on these parameters other than a trend to reduce systolic blood pressure in the HFD-fed mice (101±4 versus 113±9 mmHg, p=0.10). Gene ontology enrichment analysis of 810 differentially expressed genes (F-test, p<0.05) in the retina displayed differential regulation of genes in ontology groups, mainly pathways for apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress, especially systemic lupus erythematosus, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and glutathione metabolism. Mice fed a HFD had increased retinal gene expression of several crystallins, while the HFD+BB mice showed potential downregulation of these crystallins when compared to the HFD mice. Bilberries also reduced the expression of genes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and increased those in the glutathione metabolism pathway.

CONCLUSIONS:

HFD feeding induces differential expression of several stress-related genes in the mouse retina. Despite minor effects in the phenotype, a diet rich in bilberries mitigates the upregulation of crystallins otherwise induced by HFD. Thus, the early stages of obesity-associated and stress-related gene expression changes in the retina may be prevented with bilberries in the diet.

 

35.

Pharmacogn Rev. 2012 Jan;6(11):29-36. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.95855.

The chemotherapeutic potential of Terminalia ferdinandiana: Phytochemistry and bioactivity.

Abstract

Plants contain a myriad of natural compounds which exhibit important bioactive properties. These compounds may provide alternatives to current medications and afford a significant avenue for new drug discovery. Despite this, little information is available in the literature regarding native Australian plants and their potential for medicinal and industrial uses. Recent studies have reported Terminalia ferdinandiana to be an extremely good source of antioxidants. Indeed, T. ferdinandiana has been reported to have ascorbic acid levels per gram of fruit more than 900 times higher than blueberries. T. ferdinandiana also has high levels of a variety of other antioxidants, including phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Antioxidants have been associated with the prevention of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological degenerative disorders. They are also linked with antidiabetic bioactivities and have been associated with the reduction of obesity. Antioxidants can directly scavenge free radicals, protecting cells against oxidative stress-related damage to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Therefore, T. ferdinandiana has potential in the treatment of a variety of diseases and disorders and its potential bioactivities warrant further investigation.

KEYWORDS:

Australian medicinal plants; Kakadu plum; Terminalia ferdinandiana; antioxidants; gubinge; vitamin C

 

36.

J Med Food. 2011 Dec;14(12):1511-8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2010.0292. Epub 2011 Aug 23.

Blueberry intake alters skeletal muscle and adipose tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activity and reduces insulin resistance in obese rats.

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and includes phenotypes such as obesity, systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. A recent epidemiological study indicated that blueberry intake reduced cardiovascular mortality in humans, but the possible genetic mechanisms of this effect are unknown. Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins, andanthocyanins can alter the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism. The effect of blueberry intake was assessed in obesity-prone rats. Zucker Fatty and Zucker Lean rats were fed a higher-fat diet (45% of kcal) or a lower-fat diet (10% of kcal) containing 2% (wt/wt) freeze-dried whole highbush blueberry powder or added sugars to match macronutrient and calorie content. In Zucker Fatty rats fed a high-fat diet, the addition of blueberry reduced triglycerides, fasting insulin, homeostasis model index of insulin resistance, and glucose area under the curve. Blueberry intake also reduced abdominal fat mass, increased adipose and skeletal muscle PPAR activity, and affected PPAR transcripts involved in fat oxidation and glucose uptake/oxidation. In Zucker Fatty rats fed a low-fat diet, the addition of blueberry also significantly reduced liver weight, body weight, and total fat mass. Finally, Zucker Lean rats fed blueberry had higher body weight and reduced triglycerides, but all other measures were unaffected. In conclusion, whole blueberry intake reduced phenotypes of metabolic syndrome in obesity-prone rats and affected PPAR gene transcripts in adipose and muscle tissue involved in fat and glucose metabolism.

 

37.

Nutr Res. 2011 Dec;31(12):896-906. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2011.09.026.

Purple sweet potato anthocyanins attenuate hepatic lipid accumulation through activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells and obese mice.

Abstract

Purple sweet potato is a functional food rich in anthocyanins that possess disease-preventive properties.Anthocyanins are known to possess potent antidiabetic properties. However, the effect of the anthocyaninfraction (AF) from purple sweet potato on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. Our hypothesis is that AF inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation through the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we evaluated body weight, liver histology, and hepatic lipid content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ICR mice treated with AF. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of AF's effects in HepG2 hepatocytes through Western blot analysis. Anthocyaninfraction (200 mg/kg per day) reduced weight gain and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed an HFD for 4 weeks. Anthocyanin fraction significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in the liver and HepG2 hepatocytes. In addition, AF down-regulated the levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and its target genes including ACC and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of AF on the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins such as SREBP-1 and FAS in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of AF on HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation are thus mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for the prevention of obesity.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

 

38.

J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Nov 23;59(22):12254-63. doi: 10.1021/jf203136j. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Inhibitory effect of blueberry polyphenolic compounds on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro.

Abstract

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide and is closely associated with metabolic syndromes, such as obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance. Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), also called simple steatosis, is the initial phase of NAFLD, which is accompanied the characteristic pathological overaccumulation of lipids without inflammation. To prevent NAFLD from reaching the NAFL stage through dietary therapy, in the present work, wild Chinese blueberries (Vacciniun spp.) were selected for their well-known benefits in inhibiting metabolic syndrome. After being purified from wild Chinese blueberries, polyphenol-rich extracts were subsequently separated into three fractions, namely, anthocyanin-rich fraction, phenolic acid-rich fraction, and ethyl acetate extract. The inhibition of oleic acid (OA)-induced triglyceride (TG) deposition in HepG 2 cells was referred to as the potential activity of preventing NAFL. Biochemical indicators, such as cytotoxicity, TG level, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and intracellular reactive oxygen species, were used to evaluate the analogous pathological stage of NAFLD. The results show that OA ≤ 1.0 mM exhibits a dose-dependent induction of TG accumulation, and no inflammation was observed based on the changes in ALT and AST levels. Therefore, 1.0 mM OA was used to simulate an in vitro fatty liver. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract efficiently inhibited OA-induced TG accumulation in HepG2 cells, and the phenolic acid-rich fraction performed efficiently. Seven phenolic acids were subsequently identified using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay, and the main types were caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic, p-coumaric, and cinnamic acids. These phenolic acid standards also displayed good efficiency in inhibiting TG accumulation in HepG2 cells. These results imply that wild Chinese blueberries have a potential preventive effect on NAFLD in its early stage, and phenolic acids are the most efficient component.

 

39.

J Med Food. 2011 Oct;14(10):1097-106. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2010.1450. Epub 2011 Aug 23.

Anti-obesity and antioxidative effects of purple sweet potato extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro.

Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to determine the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of an extract of purple sweet potatoes (PSPs) on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. For this purpose, differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with a PSP extract at concentrations of 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 μg/mL for 24 hours. Then, we measured the changes in the sizes of the adipocytes, the secretion of leptin, and the mRNA/protein expression of lipogenic, inflammatory, and lipolytic factors after the treatment with the PSP extract. The PSP extract diminished leptin secretion, indicating that growth of fat droplets was suppressed. The extract also suppressed the expression of mRNAs of lipogenic and inflammatory factors and promoted lipolytic action. The antioxidative activity of the PSP extract was also measured using three different in vitro methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing ability potential assay, and chelating activity of transition metal ions. Taken together, our study shows that PSP extract has antilipogenic, anti-inflammatory, and lipolytic effects on adipocytes and has radical scavenging and reducing activity.